Initiation of translation involves assembly of the components that carry out the process.
Synthesis of the polypeptide involves a repeated cycle of events.
Disassembly of the components follows termination of translation.
Free ribosomes synthesize proteins primarily for secretion or use in lysosomes.
Bound ribosomes synthesize proteins for use primarily within the cell.
Translation can occur immediately after transcription in prokaryotes due to the absence of a nuclear membrane.
The sequence and number of amino acids in the polypeptide is the primary structure.
The secondary structure is the formation of alpha helices and beta pleated sheets stabilized by hydrogen bonding.
The tertiary structure is the further folding of the polypeptide stabilized by interactions between R groups.
The quaternary structure exists in proteins with more than one polypeptide chain.
tRNA-activating enzymes illustrate enzyme-substrate specificity and the role of phosphorylation.
The use of molecular visualization software to analyze the structure of eukaryotic ribosomes and tRNA molecules.
Identification of polysomes in electron micrographs of prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
Developments in scientific research follow improvements in computing- the use of commuters has enabled scientists to make advances in bioinformatics applications such as locating genes within genomes and identifying conserved sequences.